Attorney Intel is pleased to announce the Top 25 Attorneys in North Carolina for 2022. The state, known for its arts and culture, being a pioneer in aviation, and its beautiful state parks, has countless attorneys who are guiding individuals and corporations through complex litigation matters. This year’s awardees are fiduciaries and advocates for their clients’ interests and leaders amongst their peers. They embody the spirit of justice and leverage their deep experience and ongoing dedication to the law to protect our government and society.
Among this year’s awardees is Hal Levinson, Partner of Moore and Van Allen, who has led numerous transactions in the healthcare, information technology, financial services and consumer products sectors, and is regularly the counsel of choice for many business owners due to his transactional experience and sound business judgment. Also awarded is Letao Qin, Intellectual Property Partner of Rimon Law, who has facilitated transactions involving high-tech and emerging technologies such as AI, robotics, and autonomous driving vehicles. Meanwhile, veteran Dustin Greene, Partner of Kilpatrick Townsend and Stockton, has represented enrolled members of the Comanche, Caddo, Apache, Cherokee, and Kiowa Tribes of Oklahoma in actions for trespass and condemnation arising from the continued operation of a natural gas pipeline for more than sixteen years after the easement expired.
Please join us in celebrating the accomplishments of the Top 25 Attorneys in North Carolina for 2022.
Partner, K&L Gates
Julie Rizzo is a partner in the firm’s Capital Markets practice group. She focuses her practice on securities law compliance and corporate governance, including environmental, social and governance (ESG) matters. Prior to joining the firm, Julie served as counsel at a US law firm. Her professional background brings a unique perspective to her clients, having worked for a leading technology company, a federal regulator, and a Big Four accounting firm.
She is the Red Hat, Inc.'s General H. Hugh Shelton Chairman's Award Winner of 2018. She also won the US Securities and Exchange Commission's Productivity Improvement Award, 2009 (Presented to the Shareholder Proposal Task Force). Rizzo graduated from Georgetown University Law Center with a JD and from Georgetown University with an undergraduate degree in accounting and finance. She is admitted to the Bar in New York, District of Columbia, and North Carolina.
Jae In Yoo
VP & Associate General Counsel of M&A, Vontier
Jae In Yoo is a Vice President and Associate General Counsel of M&A for Vontier, a global industrial technology company focused on smarter transportation and mobility. Yoo first joined the company in 2021. Vontier’s portfolio includes market-leading expertise in mobility technologies, retail and commercial fueling, fleet management, telematics, vehicle diagnostics and repair, and smart cities.
Prior to joining Vontier, Yoo served as an associate with Morris & Foerster, and before that with White & Case. He served with the Korean Air Force as an interpreting officer before attending New York University School of Law where he earned his JD. Yoo graduated from the University of Michigan with an undergraduate degree in business administration and management.
Jason Cowley is the Partner of McGuireWoods. He first joined the company in 2020. McGuireWoods is a full-service firm providing legal and public affairs solutions to corporate, individual and nonprofit clients worldwide for more than 200 years collectively. Their commitment to excellence in everything they do gives their clients a competitive edge in everything they do.
Previously, Cowley was an assistant US attorney, US Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York at the U.S Department of Justice and before that a judicial law clerk at Chambers of United States District Judge James C. Denver. Cowley earned a JD from Harvard Law School and an undergraduate degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Jason Cowley, a former federal prosecutor, is a member of the firm’s Government Investigations and White Collar Litigation department and its Securities Enforcement and Litigation practice group. He principally represents financial institutions (including investment funds), corporations, and executives in criminal investigations and trials, regulatory enforcement proceedings, and complex civil litigation. He also conducts internal investigations, undertakes transactional diligence, and advises on compliance matters. Cowley has a particular expertise in matters involving securities and commodities fraud, cross-border enforcement issues, anti-money laundering issues, and criminal and civil asset forfeiture.
Partner, Kilpatrick Townsend and Stockton
Dustin Greene litigates complex commercial, securities, construction, real estate development, Native American, and other legal issues for both plaintiffs and defendants. Mr. Greene has experience in federal and state trial courts and appellate courts across the country, as well as US and international arbitration.
He was recognized as a North Carolina “Rising Star” for General and/or Business Litigation in 2014-2018 by Super Lawyers magazine, was named one of the Triad Business Journal’s "40 Leaders Under 40” in 2017, and in 2018 received the Citizen Lawyer Award for 2018 from the North Carolina Bar Association. In 2014, he was appointed by North Carolina’s Governor to be a member of the North Carolina Private Protective Services Board, where he served as chair of the grievance committee until January 2018. Prior to entering the legal profession, he served as an Army Ranger in Afghanistan and Iraq, where he earned, among other honors, the Combat Parachutist Badge. He also appears in the CBS News photo essay What it takes to be an Army Ranger.
General Counsel, Self-Help
Dave Shumannfang is the General Counsel of Self-Help, whose mission is to create and protect ownership and economic opportunity for all, especially people of color, women, rural residents and low-wealth families and communities. They do this by providing responsible financial services, lending to small businesses and nonprofits, developing real estate and promoting fair financial practices. While their work benefits communities of all kinds, their focus is on those who may be underserved by conventional lenders, including people of color, women, rural residents and low-wealth families and communities.
Before joining Self-Help, Shumannfang was a chief counsel at Red Hat for 5 years. Shumannfang graduated from the University of North Carolina School of Law with a JD and from William and Mary with an undergraduate degree.
Partner, Michael Best and Friedrich
Adam Goldblatt represents clients in corporate and transactional matters including governance, business formation, financing (debt, equity, angel, and venture financing), mergers and acquisitions, intellectual property licenses and transactions, and commercial real estate. He also advises on issues pertaining to data privacy, employment, and national security reviews and processes conducted by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS). Additionally, Adam serves as outside general counsel to select companies in the US and around the globe.
During his 20-plus years as an attorney, Adam has developed deep experience in industries such as software, healthcare, consumer goods, apparel, online gaming, media, entertainment, and food & beverage. Prior to joining Michael Best, Adam led the Corporate Practice Group at Forrest Firm, a full-service law firm with offices across North Carolina. He previously served as in-house counsel at Pacific Edge Software, Phantom Entertainment, and Talyst. Goldblatte graduated from the City University of New York School of Law with a JD and from American University with an undergraduate degree in justice.
Partner, Moore and Van Allen PLLC
Hal Levinson is counsel of choice for many business owners, including those owned by generations of family members, entrepreneurs, and strategic companies that have decided to sell their business. Hal’s extensive transactional experience and business judgment enables him to effectively guide sellers through the complex sales process. He negotiates effectively with purchasers represented by the largest law firms, investment banks, and private equity funds around the country and internationally.
Hal has led numerous transactions in the healthcare, information technology, financial services, industrial, and consumer products sectors. Clients and investment bankers who have worked with Hal recognize his business-oriented legal judgment and his ability to quickly focus on the core issues in each transaction. Levinson earned a JD from the University of Michigan Law School and an undergraduate degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Hal also is an experienced advisor to public and private company boards of directors. While Hal has advised clients in a wide variety of industries, many of his clients are in the health care, information technology and financial services sectors.
General Counsel, Toshiba Global Commerce Solutions
Kevin Hughes is the General Counsel of Toshiba Global Commerce Solutions, the global market share leader in retail store technology. As retail’s first choice for integrated in-store solutions, their innovative commerce technology enhances customer engagement, transforms in-store experience, and accelerates digital transformation. Toshiba has become a leader by combining the right mix of proven solutions, innovative capabilities, and expertise that retailers need to better engage their customers.
Hughes provides outstanding business and legal counsel with over twenty-three years of in-house legal experience in the information technology field. His career has included increasing levels of responsibility and authority at industry-leading technology firms including IBM, Lenovo and Toshiba, with an emphasis on the development, marketing sales and service of software, personal computers, mobile devices, and retail point-of-sale hardware and software and related services. His specialties include complex commercial negotiation, software licensing, intellectual property, advertising compliance, consumer protections, corporate governance, and litigation management. Hughes first got his start in 1995 as an attorney at IBM. From there, he went on to Lenovo Group. Hughes graduated from The Ohio State University Moritz College of Law with a JD and from Georgetown University with an undergraduate degree in psychology.
Intellectual Property Partner, Rimon Law
Dr. Letao Qin has extensive experience as a patent attorney. Focusing her practice in all aspects of IP transaction, patent and trademark prosecution and procurement, Qin has advised Fortune 500 companies, universities, start-ups, and individual inventors to identify, capture, and protect innovations. Her practices include IP counseling, due diligence and clearance for business transactions that involve high-tech and emerging technologies such as AI, robotics, and autonomous driving vehicles. Qin also specializes in patent and trademark procurement and proceedings at the patent and trademark appeal boards. She has drafted PCT and US utility patent applications in the technical areas of emerging technologies, electrical and telecommunication technologies, computer software, medical devices and optical instruments.
Qin is a member of American IP Law Association and co-chairs its IP Practice in China Committee, where she leads the committee’s various projects of legislation and commentary, IP law harmonization and delegation visits. Prior to joining Rimon, she worked for more than seven years at two IP boutique law firms as an associate. She also did a stint at an early-stage energy start-up company as an in- house IP attorney. Before joining the legal profession, Dr. Qin worked at two leading engineering companies, IBM and Nortel Networks, as a computer engineer.
Qin holds a doctorate in astrophysics and studied under Dr. Tsuruta, who was one of the very few female astrophysicists in the 1950s and after whom a neutron star was named. In graduate school at Montana State University, Qin was involved in the astrophysics research group and received her doctoral degree after her pioneer work studying effects of strong magnetic fields on neutron star thermal evolution. She attended the University of Science and Technology of China. She received her undergraduate degree in physics from the University of Science and Technology of China and her JD from Boston College Law School, cum laude.
General Counsel, Live Oak Bank
Greg Seward is the General Counsel at Live Oak Bank, which he first joined in 2015. Live Oak is a digital, cloud-based bank serving small business owners in all 50 states. Their family of companies under the holding and parent company Live Oak Bancshares, and their subsidiaries, partner with businesses that share a groundbreaking focus on service and technology to redefine banking.
Seward is a results-oriented lawyer with a keen legal mind and strong business experience. He provides trusted legal advice and practical business judgment on issues ranging from daily operations to mission-critical strategies. Seward is a seasoned legal executive with experience in an international law firm, a sophisticated in-house department and as General Counsel for a dynamic and fast-growing business. He has broad experience directly advising C-level executives and Boards of Directors on complex legal and strategic issues and managing teams of attorneys and other professionals on a broad range of legal, compliance and operational matters. Previously, Seward was a VP and senior associate general counsel-global finance and securities at Capital One and before that an associate at Gibson, Dunn and Crutcher LLP. Seward earned a JD from Duke University School of Law and an undergraduate degree in English Literature from the University of Virginia.
Partner, Phelps Dunbar
Kevin O’Brien practices in the area of insurance with a focus on complex insurance coverage and extra-contractual litigation and counseling, along with some insurance defense litigation. In the insurance coverage practice area, he handles complex first- and third-party coverage matters in both state and federal courts, including matters involving Commercial Property, Commercial General Liability, Condominium Property, Motor Truck Cargo, Marine Cargo, Dealer’s Open Lot, Garage Keepers Legal Liability, Truckers’ Liability, E&O, Law Enforcement Liability, Public Officers & Employees Liability, Jeweler’s Block and Homeowners insurance policies. He both represents and advises insurers on such matters, including providing coverage opinions and advice, assisting with Examinations Under Oath and representing insurers in coverage and “bad faith” / extra-contractual litigation.
Kevin is a North Carolina Dispute Resolution Commission certified Superior Court Mediator. Kevin also advises and represents insurance clients on defense of “bad faith” and unfair claims practices allegations. He has defended many professionals in professional liability actions. Kevin also monitors local counsel and litigation in various other states for the firm’s insurance clients. He has represented a pro bono client before the Supreme Court of Florida. Prior to joining the firm, he served as a judicial extern for the Hon. Charles J. Kahn of Florida’s First District Court of Appeal.
Partner, Williams Mullen
Elizabeth Scott “Scottie” Fralin advises companies on a wide range of corporate matters, with a concentration on the senior housing industry. She represents clients in a variety of transactional matters, focusing in particular on the acquisition and disposition of senior care-related real estate assets and secured lending. She has experience working with corporations, limited partnerships and limited liability companies. Before coming to Williams Mullen, Scottie worked with the Virginia State Corporation Commission Office of General Counsel, advising and representing the Commission’s Bureau of Insurance.
Scottie received her JD degree from the University of Richmond School of Law, cum laude, where she was editor-in-chief of the Richmond Journal of Law and Technology, won the CALI Award for Excellence in Legal Analysis & Writing and Pre-Trial Litigation Skills, and served as the community chair for Richmond Women’s Law. She received her Bachelor of Arts degree in English from the University of Virginia. Ms. Scott has been litigating commercial and business disputes in the state and federal courts of North Carolina for over 30 years. Ms. Scott has a broad range of practice experience in trade practice, contract, insurance coverage, product liability, and personal injury disputes.
Partner, McAngus Goudelock and Courie
Cassie Keen began her professional career 13 years ago. Today, she is the Partner of McAngus Goudelock and Courie. Established in 1995, McAngus Goudelock and Courie is an insurance law firm with offices across eight states. MGC’s team of legal professionals provide counsel to clients in all aspects of workers’ compensation, litigation and employment law. They offer their clients counseling and continuing education through on-site training seminars and consultations.
Keen first got her start in 2009 as an associate attorney at Scott Law Offices. Keen graduated from Elon University with a JD and from Wake Forest University with an undergraduate degree in history. Cassie Keen’s practice focuses on workers’ compensation defense. Prior to joining MGC, Cassie practiced criminal defense, family law and workers’ compensation. Outside of work, Cassie spends time with her husband, as well as horseback riding, running and playing tennis.
Partner, Parker Poe Adams and Bernstein
Deirdre Denechaud has extensive experience representing lenders, commercial developers, owners and investors in the acquisition, development, financing, sale, and leasing of commercial real estate and infrastructure projects, including hospitals and medical office buildings, mixed-use communities, planned communities, office towers, retail developments, apartment complexes, condominiums, convenience stores, golf courses, renewable energy projects, and solar and wind energy facilities.
She represents local, regional and national lenders in commercial real estate loan transactions and corporate lending transactions, including commercial construction and permanent financing for real estate projects and asset-based loans. Deirdre lends creative and efficient solutions to achieve her clients’ business objectives. Denechaud earned a JD from the University of Georgia School of Law and an undergraduate degree in English from Washington and Lee University.
General Counsel, TTI Floor Care North America
Kristine Zenkewicz is the General Counsel of TTI Floor Care North America. She first joined the company in 2015 as Techtronic Industries North America, Inc.-assistant general counsel. TTI Floor Care North America is a fast-growing world leader in Power Tools, Accessories, Hand Tools, Outdoor Power Equipment, and Floor Care and Appliances for Do-It-Yourselfer (DIY), professional and industrial users in the home improvement, repair, maintenance, construction and infrastructure industries.
Previously, Zenkewicz was a counsel at Franklin and Prokopik, PC and before that, a claims counsel at Zurich North America. Zenkewicz earned a JD from Cleveland State University-Cleveland-Marshall College of Law and an undergraduate degree in journalism from The Ohio State University. She was instrumental in drafting the Environmental, Social and Governance Reports required by the Hong Kong Exchange from 2015 to 2021. She has more than 20 years of experience. She specializes in managing legal, product safety, managing resources, writing and communicating, and more.
Partner, Nexsen Pruet
Christy Myatt is the Partner of Nexsen Pruet, focused on their clients, their people, and their communities. Nexsen Pruet professionals serve clients in multiple industries and areas of practice, but they know their work plays a larger role in their region. They know that successful business can build thriving communities, and they are honored to play a role in that process.
Myatt has 34 years of experience. She began her career in 1988. Myatt graduated from Wake Forest University School of Law with a JD and from Wake Forest University with an undergraduate degree. Myatt is Board Certified in Bankruptcy Law by the North Carolina Board of Legal Specialization and the American Board of Certification. She helps a wide variety of banks, financial institutions and industry creditors in real estate, construction, development and tax credit lending transactions and in workouts, debt restructuring and bankruptcy. She also has extensive experience representing trustees, creditor's committees, debtors, secured and unsecured creditors, bondholders, guarantors, and others in numerous bankruptcy and workout cases in North Carolina, the Southern District of New York and Delaware. She has served as a receiver in various state and federal matters on behalf of various creditors and the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
Partner, Smith Anderson
Jeb Jeutter is the Partner of Smith Andersonone of the largest business and litigation law firms in North Carolina, they provide a full range of legal services to a diverse group of regional, national and international companies ranging in size from large public companies to emerging growth businesses. Their breadth of experience crosses national and international markets, with clients located in 26 countries and 45 US states, positioning them to handle matters for their clients wherever they have operations.
Jeutter has 32 years of experience. He began his career in 1990. Before joining Smith Anderson, Jeutter was a shareholder at Gerald A. Jeutter, Jr., Attorney at Law, PA and before that a partner and Executive Committee at Kilpatrick Townsend and Stockton LLP. Earlier in his career he worked with Dewey and LeBoeuf LLP as an attorney. Jeutter graduated from Mississippi College School of Law with a JD and from William and Mary with an undergraduate degree in English and language literature.
Partner, Robinson Bradshaw and Hinson
Kelly Loving has a diverse transactional practice that covers a broad range of commercial transactions with a focus on mergers and acquisitions, intellectual property, technology licensing and general commercial matters. She has represented a variety of public and private companies in numerous industries, including manufacturing, telecommunications and health care, with a particular focus on technology companies. Loving has extensive experience representing public and private companies and private equity funds in connection with structuring and negotiating purchases and sales of businesses in both auction and non-auction settings. She has also represented numerous parties in joint ventures and other business partnerships.
A key focus of Loving’s practice is on counseling technology providers and end-users in connection with a variety of arrangements to acquire, develop, protect and distribute intellectual property, including licensing and distribution agreements, reseller arrangements, consulting and service agreements, development agreements, and more. Serving as general corporate counsel to many business clients, Loving has been engaged to assist in a wide variety of business and commercial matters. Kelly serves on Robinson Bradshaw's board of directors and as co-chair of the firm's Corporate Department.
Partner, O'Hagan Meyer
Wood Lay began his professional career 30 years ago. Today, he is the Partner of O'Hagan Meyer. While corporate, nonprofit, association and individual clients hire O’Hagan Meyer attorneys because of their broad and deep expertise, stellar reputation and outstanding track record in the courtroom, they rehire them primarily because of one key attribute: they tell it like it is. When a case or matter comes to them, they examine it thoroughly but quickly and if they and their client believe they should litigate, they’ll roll up their sleeves and fight to win.
Lay first got his start in 1992 as an associate at Hunton and Williams LLP. From there, he went on to Winston and Strawn LLP before joining O’Hagan Meyer. Lay graduated from Washington and Lee School of Law with a JD and from the University of Virginia with an undergraduate degree.
Partner, Marshall Gerstein and Borun
With over 15 years of experience, Joshua T. Elliott focuses on patent law matters related to biochemistry and biotechnology, including advising and counseling clients on issues such as freedom-to-operate, infringement, validity, and design around strategies. His practice includes rendering opinions, conducting patent due diligence investigations, advising clients on patent portfolio strategies, strategically managing global patent portfolios, and preparing and prosecuting patent applications. Josh also has experience advising clients on due diligence issues related to potential investments, venture funding, and initial public offerings.
Josh earned his JD, cum laude, from the University of Dayton School of Law, where he was the recipient of the Loren M. Berry Scholarship. During law school, he was a member of the University of Dayton Law Review. He graduated with a B.S. in chemistry on the biochemistry track, with Distinction, from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa honor society.
Partner, Milberg Coleman Bryson Phillips Grossman
Pat Wallace is a partner at Milberg, where he consistently demonstrates his fearlessness and devotion to his clients. Since joining the firm in 2015, Pat has pioneered new theories of recovery and employed innovative strategies to help his clients achieve access to justice, and has secured $150 million on his cases.
Pat litigates a wide range of complex litigation matters, including class actions, mass torts, and whistleblower actions. Pat is a 2014 graduate of the Wake Forest University School of Law, where he worked on and argued an appeal before the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals and honed his litigation skills as part of the American Association for Justice trial team. Pat earned his BA degree from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Upon graduating law school, Pat worked as a law clerk to the Honorable Catharine R. Aron, Chief Judge of the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of North Carolina. Wallace graduated from Wake Forest University School of Law with a JD and from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign with an undergraduate degree in psychology.
Partner, Wyrick Robbins Yates and Ponton
Kyle is the Practice Group Leader for the firm’s Labor and Employment Practice Group. He regularly represents, counsels, and trains clients regarding all state and federal employment laws, including Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Fair Labor Standards Act, the Family and Medical Leave Act, the Retaliatory Employment Discrimination Act, and state wage and hour laws. He also advises clients and litigates cases related to these issues, as well as regarding covenants not to compete, trade secrets, drug testing, employment terminations and severance, employment policies, and other employment-related issues.
Kyle is admitted to practice before all federal and state courts in North Carolina. He regularly represents clients in proceedings in state and federal court and before the US Department of Labor, the North Carolina Department of Labor, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the National Labor Relations Board, and other federal and state agencies. Kyle received his BA, with honors, from the University of North Carolina, and his JD, with honors, from the University of North Carolina School of Law. While in law school, Kyle was a published member of the North Carolina Law Review, where he also served as a Comments Editor and received the Thornton Brooks Award. Prior to joining the firm, Kyle was a shareholder at a large North Carolina-based firm.
Partner, Smith Moore Leatherwood
Evan assists clients in litigating complex business disputes, including commercial contracts litigation, class action defense, real estate matters, and defense of claims brought under the Telephone Consumer Protection Act and other statutes. He routinely appears in state and federal courts, including the North Carolina Business Court, and handles binding arbitrations, both before the American Arbitration. Association and other quasi-judicial bodies. He has brought cases to verdict before juries, judges, and arbitrators and has handled appeals in North Carolina's appellate courts and in the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals.
Evan also has experience assisting clients in designing and continuously improving their litigation management strategies and processes to determine the best way to deliver legal work aligned with the client's interests, utilizing project management and process improvement principles to deliver reductions in cost, cycle time, and overhead.
Partner, Resolution Economics
Richard Goldberg is a Partner at Resolution Economics LLC. He holds an undergraduate degree in Political Science from the University of California, Los Angeles and a master’s degree in Political Science with an emphasis in quantitative research methodology from Columbia University. Prior to joining Resolution Economics, Mr. Goldberg was with UCLA’s Higher Education Research Institute at the Graduate School of Education where he worked to design, implement, and analyze data from several nationwide education-related surveys. Mr. Goldberg’s academic work has been published in the Journal for Higher Education.
Richard has more than 13 years of experience in employment-related litigation support and consulting, having worked on matters involving class-action employment discrimination, state and federal wage-and-hour issues, and wrongful termination claims. Additionally, he has overseen the design and implementation of surveys for numerous labor-related disputes and has offered his opinion on survey-based trial plans as well as proposals for statistical sampling. Mr. Goldberg has filed declarations in both State and Federal court and has provided testimony at deposition and in arbitration.
Partner, Smith Debnam Narron Drake Saintsing and Myers LLP
Joe Davies focuses on helping clients resolve issues they’ve been unable to resolve on their own, whether it’s an issue with a lease, a disagreement in a construction case or contractual dispute, or something else entirely. His motivation is recognizing that the vast majority of the parties involved in litigation would much rather be focusing on nearly anything else. Joe provides alternative solutions to his clients whenever feasible and makes it his mission to handle a client’s legal matter in the most efficient manner possible. As a member of the firm’s construction law group, Joe represents construction companies and small business owners in lease negotiations and complex litigation matters.
With an extensive background in lien filings and construction litigation, Joe’s litigation experience spans all types and sizes—from summary ejectments in small claims court, to collection actions and construction disputes in district and superior court, to a five-year federal class/collective action employee wage dispute. Joe says a favorite aspect of his practice is learning about his clients’ industries and helping them to find solutions they haven’t considered. Joe received his superior court mediation certification from the North Carolina Dispute Resolution Commission in 2021. Joe earned his BA magna cum laude from the University of Richmond and his JD with honors from Duke University School of Law. He is licensed to practice before the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals and all federal and state courts in North Carolina.